Psychodynamic psychotherapies

This group of psychotherapeutic therapies includes classical psychoanalysis (Z. Freud), Analytical psychology (C.G. Jung), Ego-psychology (Hartmann), Psychology of the Self (Kohut), Theories of object relations (M. Klein), etc. . What they have in common is the emphasis on the unconscious conflict between opposing motives. The therapeutic effect is achieved through insight into the underlying conflict of mental suffering, and the release of energy "blocked" by keeping the conflict in the unconscious. Psychic defences serve the Ego to prevent the realization of psychic contents (memories, ideas, desires) that are contrary to the self-ideal or moral norms. The second unifying idea in the varieties of psychodynamic theories is transference. Transference consists of the reactions and emotions related to the psychotherapist's personality. By interpreting what is happening in the transference, the therapist works both with the defences used to keep the conflict in the Unconscious and with the conflict itself. The analyst responds to the transference in a different way from the behavior of the parental figures and in this way the client achieves a therapeutic change.